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RIVERS, WATERFALLS, LAKES, BACK WATERS
Kerala is the land of Rivers and Backwaters. 49 Rivers, 46 flowing to the west and 3 to the east, cut across Kerala with its innumerable tributaries and branches. These rivers which are small and monsoon fed, turnout to be rivulets in Summer. The Backwaters form a specially attractive and economically valuable feature of Kerala. They include, lakes and Ocean inlets which stretch irregularly all along. The biggest backwater is the Vembanad Lake which opens out into the Arabian Sea at Cochin Port. The other important backwaters are Veli, Kadinakulam, Anjingo, Edava, Madayara, Paravoor, Ashtamudi, Kayamkulam, Kodungallur and Chetwa. A navigable canal stretches from Thiruvananthapuram to Tirur.
RIVERS
MANJESHWARAMPUZHA  
The origin of this small river is in the northern boundaries of Kerala in the Kasargode district. The river which flows through the villages of Pavoori and Badajay turns west and merges with the right bank of the Upplayar. The length of the river is 16 kms. Manjeshwaram, the northern end of Kerala is in the bank of this river.
UPPLAYAR  
Originating from Veerakamba hills in the Karnataka State. This is originating about 150mtr height from the Sea Level. It flows through the Kasargode Taluk and merges in the Arabian Sea. The length of the river is 50 kms.
MOGGRAL  
Originating from the black forests of Nathoorkarathka in the Kasargode district flows through Yathir, Mathur, and Patla and merges in  the Arabian Sea.
CHITTARIPUZHA  
This is the combination of the small rivers from Cherambe, Thayakolam, and Pulloor in the Kasargode district and meets the Arabian sea in the west.
NEELESHWARAM  
This originates in the Hosdurg taluk of the Kasargode district. This the main source for the Kariyankode. On the south west of the Neelaeshwaram town, near Achanthuruthu, at a place called Kottapuram it meets the Kariyankode river.
KARIYANKODE  
The origin of this river is in the eastern ghats of Pathinalkadu hills in Karnataka State. It originates about 1520 mtr height from the Sea Level. Most of the tributary of the Kariyankode River flows through south west. The length of the river is 64 kms. It merges in the Arabian Sea.
SHIRIYAR  
Originating from the Government forests in Karnataka State. This is originating about 230 mtr height from the Sea Level. The tributary of the river is Kallajathode, Kannynathode, and Eramatti. It merges in Kumbala Lake in Arabian Sea.
CHANDRAGIRI  
It is one of the most important rivers in Kasargode Taluk in Kerala. The important tributary river is Payaswani. It originates from Pattihatu forest in Karnataka State. It flows through the west and combines with Machipuram and finally merges in the Arabian Sea. The length of the river is 105 kms.
KUPPAM  
Originating from the Padinalkadu forests of Kodagu District in Karnataka State. It originates about 1630 mtr height from the Sea Level. The tributary of the river are Pakkatupuzha, Alakutathode, Kuttilol Puzha, Mukkuttathodu and Chiriyathode. It merges with Valapattanam River and merges in the Arabian Sea.
KOWVAYIPUZHA  
Originating in the Chemaeni village in Kannur district, this small river flows through Alapadambu and Vadasseri and into the Kawvayi canal.
PERUVAMBAYARU  
This originates in the Western Ghats near Wayakkara village in Kannur district. It flows through the west of Peringgoni, Kuttur, Mathamangalam, and Kunchimangalam and reaches Ezhimala and divided into two-one into the Kowvayi canal and the other into the Arabian Sea. 
RAMAPURAMPUZHA  
Starting at the Irringal village in the Western Ghats of Kannur district, it flows through Pariyaram, Kolapaduvayal, Cheruthazam and Madayi into the Kowvayi canal.
VALAPATTANAM  
Originating from the Brahmagiri forests of Kodagu district in Karnataka State. It flows through the west and combines with Kuppam River and finally merges in the Arabian Sea. The Tributary River are Srikandapuram, Valiyapuzha, Bharapuzha, Venipuzha and Aralampuzha. The length of the river is 10 kms. The largest Irrigation Project, Pazhassi Project is situated in the bank of Valapattanam River. The places which get the benefits of this irrigation project are Thalassery, Mahi, Valapattanam, Ancharakandi and Kuppam.
KABANI RIVER  
The originates from Wayanad district and flows through the North-East into the Bay of Bengal. The tributary of the river are Panamaram, Mananthavadi, Babali, Noolpuzhu and Nugu. The length of the river is 210km.
ANJARAKANDIARU  
This starts at the government forests of Kunnoth in the Kannur district, and merges with the Arabian Sea near Thalasseri town.
THALASSERI RIVER  
This starts at the western cliffs of government forests of Kunnoth in the Kannur district. It reaches the Arabian sea at the north in Mannayad.
MAHE RIVER  
Also called the Maiyazhipuzha, this starts from the Wayanad Mountains in the Western Ghats and flows south-west into the Arabian Sea.
KUTTIYADIPUZHA  
Also called the Murad River, this starts from the Wayanad Mountains in the Western Ghats and flows through Caracara, Quilandy and Kozhikode into the Arabian sea at Kotakkal in the south west of Vadakara. Kuttyadi Hydro Electric Project is situated in this river and Kuttyadi irrigation project is also situated in this river.
KORAPUZHA  
The Agalapuzha and Punnoorpuzha in the Wayanad mountains of Kozhikode district combine to form this river to merge in the Arabian Sea at Elattur.
KALLAYIPUZHA  
This originates at the Cherukulathur village in Kozhikode and merges with the Arabian sea after flowing through Kovoor,Ollavanna, Manava and Kallayi.
CHALIYAR  
The most important River in Kerala, Originating from the Elambalari hills of Neelagiri district in Tamil Nadu State. It originates about 2066 mtr height from the Sea Level. The tributary of the river are Cholapuzha, Cherupuzha, Chalipuzha, Punnapuzha, Pandiyar, Karimpuzha, Kanjirapuzha, Kurumbanpuzha, Vadapurampuzha, Irrinjipuzha and Iruthullipuzha.It flows through the Nilambur, Mumbad, Edavanna, Arikode, Vazhakadu and Farokke and finally merges in the Arabian Sea. It is also known as Beypur River. The length of the river is 169 kms.
KADALUNDIPUZHA  
This is a large river flowing through the Malappuram district. It is the combination of the Ollipuzha and Veliyar rivers. This is also called the "Karimpuzha' or 'Oravanpuram Puzha' and reaches the Arabian Sea at Kadalundi.
THIRURPUZHA  
This is a small river flowing in the Tirur taluk of the Malappuram district. it merges with Bharathapuzha at Ponnani town.
BHAVANIPUZHA  
It originates from Silent Vally in Kerala and merges in the right bank of Kaveri. The important tributary of this river are Shiruvani, Varagar, Kuntha, Kunnur and Moyar. The length of the river is 216 kms.
BHARATHAPUZHA  
This river starts in the Anamalai of Tamilnadu.It flows through the district of Coimbatore, Palghat, Malapuram, Thishivaperur and reaches the Arabian Sea at Ponani.This is the second largest rivers in Kerala.The important tributary of the river are Gayathri River, Kannadi River, Kalpathi River and Thutha River. It is also known as Ponnaniyar and the length of the river is 251 kms. The irrigation projects of Bharathapuzha are Mangalam Project, Pothundi Project, Gayathri Project, Malampuzha Project, Valayar Project, Cheerakuzhi Project, Chitoor Project and Kanjirapuzha Project. The tourist importance Malapuzha is at Malampuzha Dam 12 kms from Palakkad.
KEECHERIPUZHA  
This is called the Vadakancheri River. It is one of the smallest rivers of Kerala. It originates in the western cliffs of the Western ghats in Thalapalli Taluk. It flows into the Arabian sea through the Keecheri and Koll canal at Madukarai.
PUZHAIKALARU  
This has its origin in the combination of the rivers of Parathode and Pumalathode along with those of Naduthode and Katacheruthode. It terminates into the Arabian sea at Trissivaperoor town.
KARUVANNURPUZHA  
This originates from the western parts of the Western Ghats in Palghat. It flows through Thrissur district and merges into the Arabian Sea. The rivers of manali and Kurumali are the key sources of this river. It originates about 365 mtr height from the Sea Level. Peechi Irrigation Project is situated in this river. The Chimmoni Dam is situated in this river.
CHALAKUDY RIVER  

The river through has its origin in the Anamalai region of Tamilnadu is actually the collection of the falls from Parambikulam, Kuriyarkutti, Sholayar, Karapara and Anakayam. The famous Waterfalls Athirapally and Vazhachal is situated in the banks of river. The famous Hydro Electric Projects in Chalakkudy River are Sholayar Hydro Electric Project and Peringalkuttu Hydro Electric Project. Chalakkudy Dam is situated in this river. It merges with the Periyar River at the village of Puthanvelikkara in Ernakulam.
 
PERIYAR RIVER  

This originates in the Sivagiri hills along the border of Kerala-Tamilnadu.It is the first largest river in Kerala.It flows into the Vembanattu Lake and to the Arabian Sea. The birth place of Shri.Sankaracharya, Kalady, and the famous church at Malayatur is in the banks of Periyar. The famous festival Mahasivarathri is celebrated at the beds of this river at alwaye. Thattekadu Birds Sanctuary is situated in the banks of river. The famous Wildlife Sanctuary and Tourist place Thekkady is situated at the side of Mullaperiyar Dam. The largest Hydro Electric Project Idukki and the Arch Dam at Idukki is in this river. Pallivasal, Chenkulam, Panniyar, Neriyamangalam and Lower Periyar are the other Hydro Electric Projects in Periyar. Mullaperiyar,  Bhuthathankettu, Kundalam, Mattupetty, Munnar, Idukki, Cheruthoni, Kulamavu, Irattayar, Lower Periyar, Edamalayar, Chenkulam, Anayirangal and Ponmudi are the important Dams in this river.
 
MUVATTUPUZHA RIVER  
It originates in Idukki district, flows through Ernakulam district to merge into Vembanattu Lake and to the Arabian Sea. It is the combination of Thodupuzha River, Kaliyar River and Kothamangalam River. There is a Dam constructed for Irrigation purpose and for small Hydro Electric Project at Malankara near Thodupuzha. The famous Thommankuthu Waterfall is in this river.
MEENACHILARU  
This River originates from the mountains of the Meenachil Taluk. The source of this river are Kullathukadavaru, Thrikovillaru, Poonjarapuzha, Chittur and Payyaparathodu. It flows around Kottayam into the Vembanattu Lake.
MANIMALAYARU  
This originates from the Tata hills of Idukki district. It originates about 1156 mts from the Sea Level. It has a length of 90 kms. It merges in to right of the Pamba River at Nerrettupuram. The Holly Place 'Erumeli' is in the banks of this river.
PAMBA RIVER  

The Holly Place 'Pamba'(near to Sabarimala) is in the banks of Pamba River. It is the combination of a number of rivers originating from the lands of Peeramedu. The tributary of this river are Kakkiyar, Azhuthayar, Kakkatar and Kallar. This is the third largest river in Kerala.It originates about 1650 mtr height from the Sea Level. It flows through Ranni, Thiruvalla, Changanassery and Ambalapuzha Taluk. The famous Rice producing place, Kuttanad Taluk, gets water supply from Pumba River. The Aranmula Boat Race celebrated here is very famous, and the Maraman Convention at Maraman near Kozhenchery is also took place in this river. It has a length of 177 kms. The famous waterfall 'Perunthenaruvi' is in this river. Maniyar Irrigation Project is situated here. The Sabarigiri Hydro Electro Project is situated here. The two Dams, One is Pambayar and another Kakiyar are constructed in the banks of Pamba River. It divides into several tributaries and finally merges into the Vembanattu Lake. Pampa is treated as a 'Saint River'.
 
ACHANKOVILARU  
It originates from the hills of Achankovil in the Patanamthitta and flows through Mavelikkara, Thiruvalla and Karthikapally Taluk into the left of river Pamba near the Vembanattu Lake. The famous place Pandalam, the native place of Lord Ayyappa is in the banks is this river.
PALLICHELARU  
This originates from the southern cliffs of Kalaritharakunnu in Adoor. It merges into the Kozhikode canal near Karunagapally.
KALLADAYAR  
This originates from Kulathupuzha Hills near Ponmudi, flows through Pathanapuram, Kunnathur, Kottarakkara and Kollam Taluk merges into the Ashtamudi Lake. The tributary river is Kulathupuzha, Chenthurnipuzha and Kalthuruthipuzha. Pongumalayar, originates from Karimal Kadaikkal, Girikalayar, Originates from Girikal Hills and Shankalipalamaru, originates from Ponmudi Hills are joined into the Kolathupuzha. It has a length of 121 kms.The Historical Hanging Bridge is across this river at Punalur. The famous waterfall 'Palaruvi' is in this river. Kallada Irrigation Project in Parappara near Thenmala and Ottakkal Irrigation Project are situated in this river.
ITHIKARA RIVER  
This originates near Ponmudi and flows through Pathanapuram, Kottarakkara and Kollam into Paravoor canal.
AYIROORPUZHA  
It originates at Navayikulam, flows through M.C.Road into the Edava-Nadayarakayal.
VAMANAPURAM  
Originating from Chemunjimotta hills and is about 1860 mtr height from the Sea Level. The tributaries of the river are Upper Chittar & Manjaprayar. This river is also known as Attingal Aaru.
MAMAMPUZHA  
This starts at Panthalakuttu hills at Vembayam. It reaches the Anjuthengukayal near Cherayankeezhu.
KILLIYAR  
It originated from Nedumangad Taluk in Trivandrum district and flows through Trivandrum city and merges with Karamanayar.
KARAMANAYARU  
This has its origin in the Chemunji Mottai-Agathiyakudam hills and reaches the Arabian sea near Pachallur. The tributary river are Kaviyar, Attayar, Veyyapadiyar and Thodyyar. There are two Dams are constructed in the river one at Peppara and another at Aruvikkara for the purpose of water supply to Trivandrum city and surrounding places. The capital city of Thiruvananthapuram is in the banks of this river.
NEYYAR  
This originates at Agasthiyakudam Hills ,flows through Neyyatinkara taluk into the Arabian sea near Poovar, and has a length of 56 kms.The tributary river are Kallar and Karavaliyar. The small canals of Vandichirathode, Kulathoorvaliathode, Maruthurthode, Athiyanurthode, Thalayilthode, Kottukalthode and Venganurthode are flows through the Neyyar. There is an Irrigation Project, Neyyar Irrigation Project constructed in 1973 at Kallikadu near Kattakada about 35 kms from Trivandrum. This is a famous tourist place and there has a Safari Park, facilities for boating is available.
   
LAKES
AKKULAM LAKE & BOAT CLUB

It is located 3km from Ulloor junction in Trivandrum city. Boating facilities are also available. It has the largest children's park in Kerala.

ASHTAMUDI LAKE

The scenic lake amidst red cliffs and swaying palms, stretches northwards from Kollam town covering an area of 51.8km. It provides extensive facilities for retting coconut husks. The Chinese fishing nets add to the scenic beauty of the lake.

POOKOT LAKE

It is the most sought after tourist spot in Waynad. The nature fresh water lake is situated amidst green mountains at Vayittiri. Boating facilities are also available.

 
WATERFALLS
ATHIRAPALLY

At the entrance to the Sholayar ranges, this 80 foot waterfall is a popular picnic spot. It is at 78km from Kochi.

CHETHALAYAM WATERFALLS

The beautiful falls is amidst scenic surroundings just 12km from Sultan Bathery.

PALARUVI WATERFALLS

The waterfalls having got its name due to its appearance like stream of milk, is set in enchanting surroundings are located just 5km from Ariyankavu on the way from Punalur to Chenkotta.

PERUNTHENARUVI WATERFALLS

The spectacular waterfalls plunge down into a ravine from a rocky height of 60-100ft. It is accessible by bus from Kollam.

VAZHACHAL

At just a short distance from Athirapally,90 km from Kochi, this picturesque spot is adjacent to dense green forest land and is a part of the Chalakudy river.

   
BACKWATERS
AKKULAM BOAT CLUB

In Trivandrum is a popular picnic spot with boating facilities and a children's park with a swimming pool.

ALUMKADAVU  

23 km from Kollam enrooted Alleppey, at Karunagapally is a quiet little backwater village, famous for its boat building yard. Backwater tours are arranged by the D T P C Kollam. House boat Cruise are also arranged.

ELATHUR

Cannoly canal, Kallai River, Kadalundi and Korapuzha near Calicut are all famous for one thing or the other as part of the backwaters there.

PATHIRAMANAL

This is the little island on the backwaters in Alappuzha district.

THIRUVALLAM

The backwater here stretches to Kovalam and is famous for canoe rides.
VEMBANAD LAKE

Is the vast expanse of backwaters into which many rivers and canals range. Kumarakom bird sanctuary 8 km from Kottayam on the Vembanad Lake is a famous tourist center. Bolghatty Island, on the Vembanad Lake, near Ernakulam-Kochi is famous on account of the palace built by the Dutch in 1744, later taken over by the British. Now it is a Hotel run by the K T D C. Willingtomn Island named after Lord Willingdon, a British Victory, this man made island near Cochin is surrounded by the beautiful backwaters. It is the HQ of the Port Trust and the Southern Navel Command. Fort Kochi (Old Cochin) formerly the settlement of the British, this is a beautiful tourist spot with the Chinese net all over and is the mouth entrance of the Port. Nehru Trophy Boat Race is an internationally famous annual event.

VELI TOURIST VILLAGE

Located 8 km from Trivandrum city. Is bordered by the Veli Lagoon and the Arabian Sea. The Lagoon is separated from the sea by a narrow sand bar. Facilities available are water spots in the lagoon and 18 acre water front park with a floating bridge connecting the village to the beach.

VELIYAPARAMBA

30 km from Bekkal is the most Scenic Backwater stretch near Kasargode. Chandragiri is an ancient Fort with a chain of many forts built by a ruler in the 17 th century.

   
 

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